Milwaukee Public Schools is a large, urban district with a diverse, largely economically challenged student population and its achievement scores have historically lagged state averages in both mathematics and reading. Upon his arrival as MPS Superintendent at the start of the 2010-2011 school year, Dr. Gregory Thornton immediately recognized the need to take meaningful action that would impact student achievement quickly.
Prior to taking the helm at MPS, Dr. Thornton served as superintendent of Chester Upland School District in Pennsylvania and was a former top official in the Philadelphia public school system. His positive experience with the Pennsylvania Inspired Leadership Program made him a firm believer in the effectiveness of leadership development as a driver of school improvement and raising student achievement.
NISL’s offerings rose to the top of a competitive bidding process and the EDP was selected to become MPS’s principal leadership development program. Over 4 years, some 120 school leaders, along with more than 30 central office staff, received NISL training. In April of 2016, Johns Hopkins University and Old Dominion University issued a study on the impact of the NISL initiative in Milwaukee. The results were impressive: hundreds of students moved to proficiency in both math and reading in schools led by NISL EDP graduates and overall achievement scores grew at faster rates in those schools than in schools led by non-NISL graduates.
The Milwaukee Public School District is a large, diverse urban district. MPS enrolls some 80,000 students in 175 schools. More than half of students in MPS are African American (56 percent), about one quarter are Hispanic (24 percent), 14 percent are White, and 5 percent are Asian. Most students are from economically challenged backgrounds as well, with more than 8 in 10 MPS students—83 percent—qualifying for the federal Free and Reduced-Price Meals program. And according to a recent Brookings Institute report, the city of Milwaukee itself has the unfortunate distinction of being the most segregated major metropolitan area in the country.
These demographic and social dynamics made the need for effective and impactful school leadership at MPS particularly acute and the district’s student achievement data underscored this reality. In the 2010-2011 school year, just 14 percent of MPS students scored at or above proficient on the state reading assessment, the Wisconsin Knowledge and Concept Examinations, compared to 35.8 percent statewide. In mathematics, just 19.7 percent of MPS students scored at or above proficient compared to 49.1 percent statewide.
In its efforts to improve student achievement, MPS faced headwinds on par with the nation’s most challenged school systems. District leaders sought strategies and solutions that were both cost-effective and could be broadly implemented at scale.
After evaluating its options, MPS identified NISL’s EDP as a low-cost, high impact lever for school improvement. With MPS’s leadership anxious to get as many leaders trained as quickly as possible, 48 experienced principals enrolled in and completed the EDP in the first year of NISL’s time in Milwaukee. Two more cohorts of principals completed the EDP in the following two years. In total, 120 MPS school leaders graduated from the NISL EDP.
Wishing to further leverage the value of the NISL curriculum, MPS leadership asked NISL to create a training for central office instructional staff. In the summer of 2012, more than 30 central office staff participated in a five-day Instructional Leadership Institute administered by NISL staff. The training helped central office staff to better align their work with the efforts of their NISL-trained school leaders.
As evidence of the power of the NISL train-the-trainer model, in 2013, MPS graduates of the NISL EDP created a multiday conference featuring NISL staff as guest speakers. The conference, along with a NISL EDP curriculum-focused website created by MPS, served as a leadership development refresher for the NISL graduates’ and allowed them to share best practices based on the NISL EDP curriculum.
A three-year randomized control study of Milwaukee Public Schools from Johns Hopkins and Old Dominion Universities found that students in schools led by principals who graduated from the NISL EDP outperformed their peers in math and literacy on state assessments.
The Milwaukee study compared 24 schools led by NISL-graduate principals to 42 comparison schools led by non-NISL graduates from 2010 to 2014. The principals that would be trained in the NISL EDP began the study with their schools facing greater challenges than the matched schools in the study. NISL-trained principals led schools with student populations that included higher percentages of English Language Learners, students eligible for free and reduced-price lunch and students with special needs. These schools also had higher percentages of Hispanic students and lower percentages of Asian and White students. Most striking, NISL-trained principals led schools whose students started with lower levels of proficiency in both math and reading prior to the training their principals received from NISL.
Despite these challenges, the students in schools led by NISL-trained leaders caught up to and surpassed the students in comparison schools as a result of the NISL EDP. The researchers estimated that in the 24 schools studied with NISL-trained principals, 377 more students achieved math proficiency and 289 more achieved reading proficiency than comparable peers. The study only accounted for a fraction of the 120 NISL-trained school leaders to ensure that “gold standard” statistical methods were used. Assuming similar gains across all 120 schools receiving NISL training, some 2000 students would have reached proficiency in math and nearly 1500 would have done so in reading.
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NISL-led students gain over a month of learning over peers.
Increase in math proficiency rates above matched schools.
NISL achieves same achievement gains at one tenth the cost
NISL increased proficiency in math and literacy assessments.